International Journal of Humanities and Social Science

ISSN 2220-8488 (Print), 2221-0989 (Online) 10.30845/ijhss

The Progression of Bullying from Elementary School to University
Tracey Curwen, Jessica S. McNichol, Glynn W. Sharpe

Abstract
This study used a retrospective design to investigate the history of bullying behavior of 186 young adult bullies. There was considerable evidence that adult bullies were also adolescent and childhood bullies and that they engaged in similar bullying behaviors over time. Using RM-MANOVA, a decrease in verbal and physical bullying and in the frequency of targeting passive and active victims was found between high school and university; no difference in bullying behavior was found between elementary and high school. There were strong relationships between the use of verbal, physical, and internet bullying methods and targeting passive victims. Whether those who have bullied others perceive themselves as a bully appears to depend on the extent of their behaviors. This study provides insight into the stability of bullying behaviours as well as the interrelationships between types of bullying and the targets of long-term bullies.

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