International Journal of Humanities and Social Science

ISSN 2220-8488 (Print), 2221-0989 (Online) 10.30845/ijhss

Early In-Grade Retention in the Prediction of TAKS Reading Achievement Scores Among Third Grade Students in a South Texas School
Cynthia S. Johnson

Abstract
Research on grade retention, focusing on the effects on children’s academic performance and socio-emotional development has been controversial. The main reason for the controversy has been, despite the evidence against the use of retention it has continued as a common practice even though the research indicates that retained students perform lower academically and are more likely to drop out of school (Anderson, Whipple, & Jimerson, 2003). Schools have been under an increased pressure to have all students achieve at high performance levels; therefore grade retention is utilized as a remedy to solve academic struggles. The National Association of Psychologists (2003) found that “despite a century of research that fails to support the efficacy of grade retention, the use of grade retention has increased over the past 25 years. It is estimated that as many as 15% of American students are held back each year, and 30% - 50% of students in the US are retained at least once before ninth grade” (p. 1).

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