International Journal of Humanities and Social Science

ISSN 2220-8488 (Print), 2221-0989 (Online) 10.30845/ijhss

Climate Change, Food Security and Agricultural Productivity in Africa: Issues and policy directions.
Greg E Edame, Anam, Bassey Ekpenyong; William M. Fonta, Duru, EJC.

Abstract
This paper examines the economic impact of climate change (CC) on food security and agricultural productivity in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). It examine the impact on the basic components of food security; availability, accessibility, affordability, preference, utilization and nutritional value and food system stability. The so-called “greenhouse fertilization effect” produces local beneficial effects where higher levels of atmospheric CO2 stimulate plant growth. This occur primarily in temperate zones, with yields expected to increase by 10 to 25 percent for crops with a lower rate of photosynthetic efficiency (C3 crops), and by 0 to 10 percent for those with a higher rate of photosynthetic efficiency (C4 crops), assuming that CO2 levels in the atmosphere reach 550 parts per million. the European heat wave of 2003, when temperatures was 6 ºC above long-term means, crop yields dropped significantly, by 36 percent for maize in Italy, and by 25 percent for fruit and 30 percent for forage in France. Increased intensity and frequency of storms, altered hydrological cycles, and precipitation variance also have long-term implications on the viability of current world agro ecosystems and future food availability. Climate change has been described as the most significant environmental threat of the 21st century. Wetter climates and more floods are predicted for parts of East Africa and Latin America. Agricultural productivity in Africa, Asia and Latin America is expected to decrease by as much as 20%. In 2004, agriculture directly contributed about 14% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Agriculture is particularly vulnerable to climate change. Projections to 2050 suggest both an increase in global mean temperatures and increased weather variability, with implications for the type and distribution of agricultural production worldwide. One successful path to tread is to boost agricultural production. Projections based on population growth and food consumption patterns indicate that agricultural production will need to increase by at least 70 percent to meet demands by 2050

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