International Journal of Humanities and Social Science

ISSN 2220-8488 (Print), 2221-0989 (Online) 10.30845/ijhss

“A Sociological Analysis of Stumbling Blocks in Structure of Education Sector: A Case of Affiliated Schools from Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education of Multan District (Pakistan).”
Tehmina Sattar

Investment on human capital not only makes enhancement in individual development but also development of the whole nation. Acquisition and application of knowledge by different countries has been governed largely by whether their people have acquired traits and motivations associated with formal schooling or they are dependent heavily on ideological influences. There are diverse stumbling blocks in structure of education sector that diminishes its effectiveness. These factors comprise low adult literacy rate, rural urban inequalities, squat enrollment rate, high dropout rate, cost of education and parental lack of concern due to various rigid social and cultural norms (especially for girls). In addition to these features other determinants are absenteeism of teachers, irrelevant curriculum, lack of separate schools for girls and conservative attitude of community towards girls education. Various educational policies have been designed to augment the literacy rate but despondently these policies are not capable to accomplish their targets in the limited time span. The researcher used quantitative research design to evaluate various stumbling blocks that are impinge on the structure of education sector in Pakistan. A sample size of N1=600 respondents (n1=200 teachers, n2=200 parents and n3=200 students) was taken by using multistage sampling technique. Interview schedule was used as a tool for data collection procedure. Data was assembled from n4=51 schools out of N2=306 affiliated schools from BISE (Multan District). The researcher found that high cost of education, decentralized decision making and appraisal systems are the foremost stumbling blocks that are affecting the structure of education sector in Pakistan. Accordingly the researcher concluded that every individual and citizen have right to live, speak and write. It is the primary responsibility of government to make sure that all citizens get the basic fundamental educational rights at their doorstep. Therefore strong policy making, adequate stakeholders participation, uniformity in education sector and provision of infrastructural facilities can trim down the negative impacts of these stumbling blocks on education sector of Southern Punjab (Pakistan).

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