International Journal of Humanities and Social Science

ISSN 2220-8488 (Print), 2221-0989 (Online) 10.30845/ijhss

The Intellectual Roots of Reflective Practices in Ancient Gandhāra: Implications on Contemporary Teacher Education in Pakistan
Alia Jawad

The major focus of this study is to trace the intellectual roots of reflective practices in ancient Gandhāra education system and to determine its implications on modern teacher education in Pakistan. The research relies heavily on review and critical analysis of Gandhāra scriptures, classical and modern literature about reflective practices in teacher education. It comprises of three parts, namely/that is., theoretical framework of reflective practices, reflective practices in Gandhāra (Ancient Pakistan), and its implications on modern teacher education in Pakistan. The first part operationalizes the reflective practices in terms of classic and modern theories, as presented by Aristotle, John Dewey, Schön and others. The second part of the paper sorts out the intellectual roots of reflective practices in Pre-Buddhist (Vedic and Upaniṣad-15th-8th century), and Buddhist (1st-4th century CE) literature of Gandhāra. The last part of the paper discusses the past practices of teacher education (post colonial period, since 1947), and also details the current reflective practices in newly introduced Four Years B. Ed (Hons.) program in Pakistan. The major conclusions of the study establish the importance of reflective practices, their practical efficacy, exchanging traditional delivery methods with active and independent learning, re-orientation towards reflective paradigm, testing of the educational theories with respect to classroom practices, understanding our indigenous education system in order to create a community of independent critical thinkers and national identity into modern teacher education of Pakistan.

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