International Journal of Humanities and Social Science

ISSN 2220-8488 (Print), 2221-0989 (Online)

How Can Institutional Capacity be Improved to Bolster Performance in Biology in Secondary Schools ?: A Focus on Eldoret Municipality, Kenya
Wabuke Joy Mukhwana

Abstract
This paper discusses the institutional factors that influence performance of students in Biology in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education based on the findings of a study conducted in Eldoret municipality, Kenya. The aim is to identify ways in which negative factors can be mitigated to enhance performance in Biology as a Science subject. The study adopted an ex post facto design. A total of ten out of 30 secondary schools were sampled. The target respondents were Form Three students and teachers of Biology. The sample was made up of 225 respondents; 200 students and 25 teachers obtained by using stratified sampling technique. Simple random sampling was then used to choose the streams and particular students who participated in the study. Purposive sampling was used to obtain only the students who study Biology. Questionnaires, observations and interviews were employed to collect data, and the data collected was analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively and presented using descriptive and inferential statistics. It was established that the Biology laboratory, as a physical resource, should be: available, functional, have adequate space, have laboratory technicians and have resources equitably distributed to be an effective teaching-learning resource. Moreover, libraries also affect performance in Biology positively if they are: available, have adequate space and equipped with updated Biology text books. Furthermore, government policies also influence performance. The study is significant as it generates information that can be useful in identifying ways that schools can endeavour to build sustainable capacities for improved performance in Sciences and other subjects in Kenya.

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